"Strategy and tactics deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan are being applied in Jamaica", the Guardian reports. That counterinsurgency doctrine has crept into the wars on gangs and drugs is illustrated by the training of Jamaican special forces [known as the Ninjas] by a joint US-UK-Canadian operation based in Kingston [known as Operation Kingfish].
The theory behind the operation is from a 2008 paper written for the US Marine Corps by a Jamaican army major, Wayne Robinson, titled: "Eradicating Organized Criminal Gangs in Jamaica: Can Lessons Be Learned from a Successful Counterinsurgency?". The expanding war on gangs was inserted into the 2007 Army/Marine Counterinsurgency Field Manual as threats associated with insurgencies [3-110, p.112]. For another view of the globalized war on gangs' impact on Jamaica, see Laurie Gunst, Born Fi' Dead, A Journey Through the Jamaican Posse Underworld [Owl, 1995].
The US remains Jamaica's primary trading partner. One-third of Jamaican families live below the official poverty line, while 19 percent are unemployed and another one-third work only in the informal sector.